Cement Americas

APR 2019

Cement Americas provides comprehensive coverage of the North and South American cement markets from raw material extraction to delivery and tranportation to end user.

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www.cementamericas.com • Spring 2019 • CEMENT AMERICAS 21 FEATURE between 2000 and 2015 versus China's increase of more than 200 percent over the same time frame). • The California cement industry is just as carbon efficient as other high-performing cement industries when mea- sured on an apples-to-apples basis. • Locally produced cement is the most environmental- ly responsible option for meeting California's needs for durable and resilient infrastructure. • There is more work to do, and policymakers have real opportunities to unlock and accelerate further GHG sav- ings throughout the cement-concrete supply chain. The full gist of the Sierra Club's argument is as follows: Cement production is one of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting manufacturing processes in the world: On its own, the cement industry accounts for more than 5 percent of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. But not all cement is made equal. The cleanest cement fac- tories can emit as little as half the pollution as their dirt- iest counterparts. New developments in the cement and concrete sector are driving additional pollution reductions through new materials, enhanced and more effcient pro- cesses, and other low-carbon innovations. The findings of this report show that California's cement industry is not yet a part of the transition to a low-carbon cement and concrete sector. The state's cement factories are the largest consumers of coal and petroleum coke in California; in fact, California's cement factories have higher emissions per ton of cement than similar factories in China, India, and other major cement-producing regions. California's aging and ineffcient cement production facili- ties are substantially dirtier than new facilities in countries like China and India. The opportunity to clean up Califor- nia's cement industry is significant. California's cement factories are the largest consumers of coal in the state. California is the second-largest cement producing state in the United States after Texas. California's nine cement plants together produced about 10 million metric tonnes (Mt) of cement and emitted 7.9 Mt of CO2 pollution in 2015. More than 70 percent of the energy used in California's cement industry is coal and petroleum coke, which are two of the most air polluting fossil fuels. California's cement industry used around 34.28 petajoules (PJ– 1015 joules) of fuel, which includes more than 900 kilo- tonnes (kt) of coal and petroleum coke, and 1,340 gigawatt hours (GWh) of electricity in 2015. • The 900 kt of coal and petroleum coke is the equivalent of 7,500 railcars full of these fossil fuels. • The 1,340 GWh of electricity use is equal to the average monthly electricity consumption of around 2.3 million California households. Around 60 percent of the total CO2 emissions from Califor- nia's cement industry are process-related emissions from the conversion of limestone to clinker; the remaining 40 percent are energy-related emissions from fuel and elec- tricity consumption CSCME Disagrees "A recent paper commissioned by Sierra Club California and authored by Global Efficiency Intelligence paints an inaccu- rate and intentionally misleading picture of the California cement industry," CSCME stated. "The paper's sensational claims that the California cement industry is 'failing the cli- mate challenge' and is 'substantially dirtier' than cement industries in other nations, including China, are absurd and incompatible with the facts, including many of those pre- sented in the paper itself." The California Cement Industry Has Significantly Reduced Its GHG Emissions Since 2000. Despite the Sierra Club paper's sensational claim that the California cement industry is "failing the climate challenge," the truth is that the industry has substantially reduced its GHG emissions. For instance, as noted in the paper, the California cement industry decreased CO2 emissions by 2 million metric tons (Mt) from 2000 to 2015. This is in sharp contrast to the Chi- nese cement industry, which increased its CO2 emissions by roughly 700 million Mt over the same timeframe. As also noted in the paper, the reduction in CO2 emissions in the California cement industry was due to a combination of factors, including: • A 17 percent reduction in fuel-related CO2 emissions intensity due to investments in energy efficiency and greater use of lower-carbon fuels. • A 13 percent reduction in cement output, which rough- ly halved during the Great Recession and still remains below pre-recession levels. • A 10 percent reduction in electricity-related CO2 emis- sions intensity due to investments in electricity efficiency and the decarbonization of the California electricity grid. According to the authors, these trends resulted in a 20 percent decrease in the California cement industry's GHG

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